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Ascension LibTip: Evidence Based Medicine And Nursing

This list, prepared by the Ascension Sacred Heart's Medical Librarian from other sources, is provided for information only. Referral to these sites does not imply the endorsement of Ascension Health of either the organization or their contents, expressed views, programs, or political activities. Further, Ascension does not endorse any commercial products that may be advertised or available from these organizations or on these websites. This list is not meant to be comprehensive; the exclusion of a site does not reflect the quality of that site. Please note that sites and URLs are subject to change without warning. MASH 22 May 2023

Evidence-Based Resources - General

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) - EPC Evidence-Based Reports

The AHRQ EPCs provide comprehensive, science-based information on common, costly medical conditions and new health care technologies and strategies.

Ascension Medical Libraries Evidence Based Practice/Medicine pages:

- Evidence-Based PracticeFrom our Ascension Wisconsin Libraries a guide designed to assist health care professionals to become more effective and efficient users of medical and nursing literature.

Evidence Based Practice - Pyramid of Evidence and Searching - From our Ascension Wisconsin Libraries - provides a link to the evidence pyramids and levels of evidence.

- Writing for Publication - From our Ascension Wisconsin Libraries - links to articles and videos about writing for publication.

- Writing Assistance - From Ascension St. Agnes Balitmore - links to information on how to create an outline, articles and videos, the Purdue Writing Lab, etc.

Campbell Collaboration

The international Campbell Collaboration is no non-profit organization that aims to help people make well-informed decision about the effects of interventions in the social, behavioral, and educational areas.

Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) at Oxford University

CEBM has an aim to broadly promote evidence-based health care and provide support and resources.  At this time their research is concentrating on supporting the response to COVID-19.

- Evidence-Based Medicine Tools - from the CEBM specific tools available such as CATMaker, critical appraisal tools, finding the evidence, etc.

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) at University of York

The CRD specializes in evidence synthesis, assembling and evaluating data from multiple research studies to generate robust evidence to inform health policy and practice.

Cochrane Collaboration

The Cochrane Collaboration facilitates the creation, review, maintenance, and dissemination of systematic reviews of the effects of health care. This home page for the international Collaboration provides access to information on all its activities, to the Cochrane Handbook (2020), and to the Cochrane Databases.

CONSORT Statement

CONSORT stands for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and encompasses various initiatives developed by the CONSORT group to alleviate the problems that arise from inadequate reporting of RCTs.


EQUATOR stands for Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research and seeks to improve reliability and value of medical research literature by promoting transparency and accurate reporting of research studies. EQUATOR provides quick links to key biomedical publishing guidelines and resources for both authors and editors.

GRADE Working Group

The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group has developed a common, sensible and transparent approach to grading the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Information on GRADE publications and grading software, GRADEpro is also available.

The U.S. GRADE Network

The U.S. GRADE Network's mission is to support initiatives in evidence based health and disseminate GRADE through training, mentorship, education, and collaboration.

JAMA series on Step-by-Step Critical Appraisal of Medical Literature - compiled between 1993 and 2010

Health Evidence Network (HEN)

HEN is a service of WHO Europe which synthesizes the evidence and publishes it in various forms. HEN also gives access to other resources and agencies working for evidence-based health policy.

Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice

Duke University Health Sciences Library staff offer this tutorial on the basics of evidence-based practice for health care professionals.

National Academy of Medicine (NAM)

Founded as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1970, the NAM is a private nonprofit institution that works outside of government to provide objective, evidence-based advice on matters of health.  The parent organization for NAM Is the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Evidence Search

NICE's Evidence Search helps make the researcher make better evidence-based decisions. The search includes resources from more than 800 organizations with evidence on drugs and technologies, health, public health, social care, etc.

National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)

The NIHR is the UK's largest funder of health and care research. NIHR works in partnership with the NHS, universities, local government, and others to deliver and enable world-class research. NIHR's mission is to improve the health and wealth of the nation through research.

The Ottawa Statement on the Ethical Design and Conduct of Cluster Randomized Trials

This consensus statement, which aims to provide researchers with guidance on the ethical design and conduct of CRTs in clinical research, was published as an open access document in PLoS Medicine.  The citation is Weijer C, Grimshaw JM, Eccles MP, McRae AD, White A, Brehaut JC, Taljaard M. The Ottawa Statement on the Ethical Design and Conduct of Cluster Randomized Trials. PLoS Med 2012;9(11):e1001346. DOI: PMID: 23185138. PMCID: PMC3502500. 

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA)

PRISMA is an evidence-based minimum set of items for reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

PubMed Clinical Queries

This NCBI NLM website provides specialized PubMed searches for health care professionals by clinical study category, limited to Clinical study categories, COVID-19 articles, or medical genetics.  PubMed Clinical Queries help provides a help page and a tutorial on searching for these specialized articles.

Social Programs that Work

This site seeks to identify those social interventions shown in rigorous studies to produce sizable, sustained benefits to participants and society.

The Section on Evidence Based Health Care of the New York Academy of Medicine

The NYAM section on evidence based health care site contains references, bibliographies, tutorials, glossaries, and online databases to guide those embarking on teaching and practicing evidence-based medicine. 

Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Of Diagnosis (TRIPOD) Statement

TRIPOD encompasses various initiatives developed by the TRIPOD Group to alleviate the problems arising from inadequate reporting of prediction modeling studies in biomedical sciences.

Understanding Evidence

Understanding Evidence, one of the online tools in the CDC VetoViolence website, offers knowledge and resources for using evidence in decision-making processes for violence prevention.


Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Available from Wiley for Ascension Sacred Heart.  The systematic reviews are also indexed in Medline.

PubMed Clinical Queries - This NCBI NLM website provides specialized PubMed searches by clinical study category, limited to systematic reviews or limited to medical genetics.

Trip Database - According to the Trip website Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow used to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care. Registration is required and has a number of benefits such as keeping up to day with new research and keeping a record of your research.

Zynx Health - evidence-based clinical decision support solutions. 

Evidence-Based Nursing

Joanna Briggs Institute - JBI is an international organization providing resources in allied health, medicine, midwifery, and nursing

Penn State University - Nursing LibGuide - contains Evidence-based Nursing section 

VCU - Nursing Evidence-Based Resources - Virginia Commonwealth University Libraries

Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step - collection of articles from American Journal of Nursing (last updated December 16, 2020)

Nursing Best Practice Guidelines - From the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO)

AACN Practice Alerts - Succinct, dynamic directives that are supported by authoritative evidence

2012 NAHRS Selected list of Nursing Journals - spreadsheet of nursing journals - includes info on peer review, inclusion in databases (change View to List for easier viewing)

Evidence Based Practice for Nurses - Includes tips for finding articles using CINAHL and for intervention, causation, qualitative questions -Trent University in Peterborough Ontario

Pharmacy Evidence-Based Resources

Evidence Based Practice in Pharmacy - LibGuide from the University of Southern California

Using EBM principles to answer clinical inquiries - University of Wisconsin-Madison 

Physical Therapy Evidence-Based Resources

American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) - Evidence-Based Practice Resources

PEDro - Physiotherapy Evidence Database from The University of Sydney - last update 1 May 2023

OTseeker - Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence from The University of Queensland 

Formulating A PICO(T) Question

Ascension Wisconsin's PICO Worksheet & Search Strategy

Boston University's EBM Pico Tutorial: Forming a Clinical Question

Framing Research Questions - From the NYU Libraries LibGuide on Health (Nursing, Medicine, Allied Health) - last updated March 11, 2021.

How to search MEDLINE/PubMed using the PICO Format - this worksheet from the National Library of Medicine provides a framework for creating a well-built clinical questions.

Ovid PICO Resource Center - provides information on supporting materials using the Ovid platform.

Using PICO - Chapter 4 - from Upstate Medical University Health Science Library, April 2010 (video)

UW Madison - PICO worksheet - from the Ebling Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison 

Gallagher Ford L, Melnyk BM. The Underappreciated and Misunderstood PICOT Question: A Critical Step in the EBP Process. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2019;16(6):422-423. doi: 10.1111/wvn.12408. PMID: 31769188.

Other Evidence-Based Resources

ACRL Scholarly Communication Toolkit - According to the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) which is a division of the American Library Association the toolkits are provided as a free resource to academic libraries to assist with integrating scholarly communication into library operations and creating presentations and programs for staff and students..  

The CRAAP test - Currency, Relevancy, Authority, Accuracy, Purpose (Meriam Library @ California State University, Chico)

The JANE Tool - The JANE Tool (Journal/Author Name Estimator) is a tool that helps authors find information on where to publish, who to cite, and/or find reviewers for articles to be published. 

Level of Evidence Pyramids

Source: Levels of Evidence Pyramid created by Andy Puro, September 2014. In: Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library, George Washington University. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Evaluating Evidence. Washington, DC: GWU; 2023. Available at: Retrieved May 22, 2023.

Source: Minkow D. The Evidence-Based Medicine Pyramid! Students 4 Best Evidence. 2014. Available at: Retrieved May 22, 2023.